Management
May 7, 2012

La gestion de projets dans la fonction publique : la dimension humaine

« Quatre-vingt-quinze pour cent des 255 entreprises internationales interrogées affirment que la gestion de projets est essentielle au succès de leurs activités. »

– Sondage mondial sur la gestion de projets de PIPC, février 2005

Dans le monde d’aujourd’hui, les entreprises, les organismes et leurs clients dépendent fortement d’une gestion de projets efficace. La fonction publique de l’Ontario ne fait pas exception à la règle. Toutefois, pour assurer une gestion efficace, il faut pouvoir compter sur le savoir-faire de gestionnaires de projets compétents, qui doivent quant à eux disposer d’équipes compétentes.

La question qui se pose naturellement est la suivante : qu’entend-on par « compétent » dans ce contexte? Cela signifie-t-il être en mesure de mémoriser le référentiel des connaissances en gestion de projets et étaler fièrement ses connaissances théoriques en la matière? Ou s’agit-il plutôt d’appliquer des compétences techniques et de gestion?

Je suis moi-même une nouvelle professionnelle du volet Gestion de projets du programme de stages de l’Ontario, et l’un des défis les plus difficiles auxquels j’ai eu à faire face jusqu’ici dans ma carrière a été de définir le terme « compétent » dans le contexte de la gestion de projets.

Pour répondre à cette question, je me suis tournée vers Susan Kseizopolski, directrice intérimaire du centre d’excellence en gestion de projets. Parmi les principales compétences qu’un gestionnaire de projets doit avoir, elle a souligné la capacité technique de gérer la triple contrainte de budget, de portée et de temps. Cependant, elle s’est également empressée de souligner l’importance des compétences générales, qui sont souvent négligées. « …Pour devenir un gestionnaire de projets compétent, l’une des facettes souvent oubliées, […] c’est d’être capable de gérer les ressources humaines et les relations. »

Même si je ne suis que stagiaire, j’ai déjà eu l’occasion de constater que la « dimension humaine » de la gestion de projets est souvent négligée.

Lauréate du prix de collaboration et de partenariat du Groupement de l’économie et des affaires (Economics and Business Cluster for Partnership and Collaboration Award) en 2003 et du prix de valorisation des effectifs du même Groupement (Economics and Business Cluster Valuing People Award) en 2005, Susan Kseizopolski croit fermement à la valorisation des exécutants des projets, sachant qu’il s’agit là d’un aspect essentiel de la gestion de projets.

Je lui ai demandé de me dire pourquoi, selon son expérience, les compétences générales sont si souvent négligées dans la gestion de projets, alors qu’il est évident qu’elles constituent un facteur clé de réussite. Selon elle, « les gestionnaires de projets ont tendance à mettre l’accent sur les produits livrables, les résultats finaux et l’efficacité, et non sur les gens qui participent au processus et sur la manière d’obtenir des résultats ».

Or, nous devons réaliser que, si le résultat final est le facteur déterminant de tout projet et à ce titre mérite notre attention, l’obtention des résultats souhaités passe par les gens qui travaillent à produire ce résultat.

Selon Mme Kseizopolski, l’aspect humain de la gestion de projets est absolument essentiel : « La plupart des projets se déroulent dans un environnement de rapports matriciels où les employés relèvent non seulement d’un gestionnaire fonctionnel sur papier, mais aussi de multiples gestionnaires de projets dans le cadre de leur travail quotidien. Par conséquent, il n’y a aucun rapport hiérarchique direct entre les ressources humaines/experts du domaine (ED) et le gestionnaire de projets. Celui-ci doit donc être conscient de sa sphère d’influence, par opposition à son pouvoir de contrôle, et utiliser cette influence à bon escient. L’exécution des projets et l’obtention de produits livrables sont impossibles sans la motivation des employés à accomplir le travail dans les délais et à déployer toutes les compétences qu’ils possèdent. »

« Donc, outre la capacité de gérer de multiples projets et de multiples rapports hiérarchiques, et la capacité de composer avec des priorités concurrentes quant aux ressources de projets et aux ED, le gestionnaire de projets doit absolument tenir compte de l’aspect humain pour être efficace. Le fait de récompenser, de reconnaître et de célébrer les réussites permet de garder les membres de l’équipe motivés. Pour obtenir des résultats, il faut pouvoir compter sur des employés motivés et engagés. Les membres de l’équipe se sentent utiles lorsqu’ils participent activement au projet dès les premières étapes et que le gestionnaire les consulte régulièrement tout au long du processus. On doit leur permettre de donner leur point de vue sur la définition de la portée des produits livrables et de participer à l’évaluation des efforts nécessaires pour effectuer le travail. Cela leur permet de s’identifier au projet. »

« Le fait d’exposer clairement dès le départ la vision et les objectifs du projet permet également à l’équipe de maintenir le cap sur les résultats finaux. En communiquant directement sa vision aux membres de l’équipe, le parrain du projet renforce leur adhésion à cette vision. »

En outre, Mme Kseizopolski souligne que « les membres de l’équipe sont des êtres humains, et les sources de motivation sont différentes d’une personne à l’autre. En tant que gestionnaire de projets, vous devez connaître les membres de votre équipe et savoir comment vous y prendre pour que leur niveau d’engagement demeure élevé. La reconnaissance est une source de motivation pour bien des gens – un simple merci, un certificat d’appréciation, une carte ou un café et des beignes sont généralement très appréciés. »

Durant ma quête pour définir ce que signifie être un gestionnaire de projets « compétent », j’ai appris que les meilleurs gestionnaires sont ceux qui possèdent un ensemble équilibré de compétences.

J’ai aussi appris qu’il est très important d’avoir une connaissance approfondie des méthodologies et des pratiques exemplaires de gestion de projets ainsi que de posséder des compétences techniques, mais qu’il faut également être capable d’établir des relations, de les entretenir et de gagner la confiance des membres de l’équipe.

Enfin, j’ai appris que la capacité de célébrer les accomplissements, de faire preuve d’humour et de récompenser les autres fait partie intégrante d’une bonne gestion de projets, et qu’il ne faut jamais oublier que derrière de tout projet, il y a un groupe de personnes pour qui le leadership, la vision et la dimension humaine sont indispensables.

Thansha Mahalingasivam participe au volet Gestion de projets du Programme de stages de l’Ontario de la FPO. Elle occupe actuellement le poste d’ajointe, contrôle et méthodologie de projets, dans le cadre du programme de cybersanté du ministère de la Santé et des Soins de longue durée.

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